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:115,118,127 He ran the Congo using the mercenary Force Publique for his personal enrichment. Leopold extracted a fortune from the Congo, initially by the collection of ivory, and after a rise in the price of rubber in the 1890s, by forced labour from the natives to harvest and process rubber. Born in Brussels as the second but eldest surviving son of Leopold I and Louise of Orléans, he succeeded his father to the Belgian throne in 1865 and reigned for 44 years until his death – the longest reign of any Belgian monarch. ", Standing statue near Saint Elisabeth's Church in, This statue is located in front of Saint Elisabeth's Church at the intersection of the Rue des Fossés and the Rue Boulengé de la Hainière in, The bust was originally located in the entrance hall of the Warocqué Faculty for Economics and Management of, This statue has been deliberately damaged several times, most recently in 2017. Leopold II handpicked governors, each of whom he gave dictatorial powers over their realms. The monuments were supposed to help get rid of the scandal after international commotion about the atrocities in the Congo Free State and to raise people's enthusiasm for the colonialism in Belgian Congo. Governors press-ganged huge numbers of native Congolese into agricultural labor; they forced an unknown number underground, where they worked to death in the mines. The younger Leopold died in 1869 at the age of nine from pneumonia after falling into a pond. In 2004 activist group De Stoete Ostendenoare symbolically cut off a bronze hand from one of the kneeling Congolese slaves who, as part of the 'Gratitude of the Congolese' group in the monument, honours Leopold II. Leopold was so disappointed that he considered abdication.. :25 Several historians argue against this figure due to the absence of reliable censuses, the enormous mortality of diseases such as smallpox or sleeping sickness and the fact that there were only 175 administrative agents in charge of rubber exploitation.. :62 Much diplomatic maneuvering among European nations resulted in the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 regarding African affairs, at which representatives of 14 European countries and the United States recognized Leopold as sovereign of most of the area to which he and Stanley had laid claim. After the failed regicide the security of the king was questioned, because the glass of the landaus was 2 cm thick. "King Leopold's imperialism and the origins of the Belgian colonial party, 1860–1905. Heads of state and the pope sent telegrams to the king congratulating him for surviving the assassination attempt. They slaughtered ivory-bearing elephants in massive hunts that saw hundreds or thousands of local beaters driving game past a raised platform occupied by European hunters armed with half a dozen rifles each. L'action de Stanley permet qu'une personne privée — Léopold II — devienne le propriétaire de 2,5 millions de kilomètres carrés ainsi que de la force de travail de ses habitants [E 22]. He also built important country estates on the French Riviera, including the Villa des Cèdres and its botanical garden, and the Villa Leopolda. He used Henry Morton Stanley to help him lay claim to the Congo, the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo. Attention to the Congo atrocities subsided in the years after Leopold's death. The eligibility requirements for the senate were reduced, and elections would be based on a system of proportional representation, which continues to this day. Chief among these was the Arab slave trader Tippu Tip. The majority of the required funds for these projects originated from the brutal exploitation of the Congo Free State. Prêtres, vous allez certes pour l’évangélisation, mais cette évangélisation doit s’inspirer avant tout des intérêts de la Belgique. Coronation Medal Leopold II – accession to the throne on 17 December 1865 – by Léopold Wiener. The city council initially placed a sign near the statue that read: 'The city council regrets the many Congolese victims that have perished during the Free State. When the global demand for rubber exploded, attention shifted to the labor-intensive collection of sap from rubber plants. 18:33. In 1899, in his sixty-fifth year, Leopold took as a mistress Caroline Lacroix, a sixteen-year-old French prostitute, and they remained together for the next decade until his death. Nevertheless, Leopold II eventually appointed Tip as a provincial governor in exchange for his noninterference in the king’s colonization of the western regions. ", This page was last edited on 10 November 2020, at 06:35. Hardcover How to Prepare for the SAT II (Barron s Sat Subject Test in U.S. History) zekipawefe . Knowing the situation fully, the ambassador did nothing. When he was 9 years old, Leopold received the title of Duke of Brabant, and was appointed a sub-lieutenant in the army. These projects earned him the epithet of "Builder King" (Koning-Bouwheer in Dutch, le Roi-Bâtisseur in French). Révérends Pères et Chers compatriotes , La tâche qui vous est confiée est très délicate à remplir et demande du tact. He argued that people should recognize some positive aspects of the king as well as the negative, but hours after the six-metre (20 ft) statue was installed near Kinshasa's central station, it was officially removed. , Leopold's public career began on his attaining the age of majority in 1855, when he became a member of the Belgian Senate. Instead, the World War I-level mass death was mostly the result of starvation, disease, overwork, infections caused by mutilation, and outright executions of the slow, the rebellious, and the families of fugitives. , Leopold II remains a controversial figure in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. What Stephen Hawking Thinks Threatens Humankind The Most, 27 Raw Images Of When Punk Ruled New York, Join The All That's Interesting Weekly Dispatch.  The debate over Leopold's legacy was reignited in 1999 with the publication of King Leopold's Ghost by American historian Adam Hochschild, which recounts Leopold's plan to acquire the colony, the exploitation, and the large death toll.  Other petitions, also signed by tens of thousands, called for the statues to remain. Meanwhile, the Force Publique were required to provide the hand of their victims as proof when they had shot and killed someone, as it was believed that they would otherwise use the munitions (imported from Europe at considerable cost) for hunting. Leopold II (Dutch: Leopold Lodewijk Filips Maria Victor; French: Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor; German: Leopold Ludwig Philipp Maria Viktor; 9 April 1835 – 17 December 1909) was the second King of the Belgians from 1865 to 1909 and, through his own efforts, the owner and absolute ruler of the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908. After Leopold's carriage passed, Rubino fired three shots at the procession. Richard Stockton is a freelance science and technology writer from Sacramento, California. Some joked about this "marriage of a stableman and a nun", with the shy and withdrawn Leopold referred to as the nun. His statue in the capital Kinshasa (known until 1966 as Leopoldville in his honor) was removed after independence. At the time of the 1924 census, that figure had fallen to 10 million. Later in the day, in the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie before Tristan und Isolde was performed, the orchestra played the Brabançonne, which was sung loudly and ended with loud cheers and applause. Le génocide de Léopold II, roi des Belges, au Congo (part 3) Nzwamba. Hochschild points out that since the first official census by the Belgian authorities in 1924 put the population at about 10 million, these various approaches suggest a rough estimate of a population decline by 10 million. Abandoning the promises of the Berlin Conference in the late 1890s, the Free State government restricted foreign access and extorted forced labor from the natives. Le génocide de Léopold II, roi des Belges, au Congo (part 2) Nzwamba. Doyle contrasted Leopold's rule with British rule in Nigeria, arguing that decency required those who ruled primitive peoples to be concerned first with their uplift, not how much could be extracted from them. The activists were willing to give the hand back if a historically correct sign would be placed near the statue. ) Nonetheless, Chaltin continued his advance, and on 17 February 1897, his outnumbered forces defeated the rebels in the Battle of Rejaf, securing the Lado Enclave as a Belgian territory until Leopold's death in 1909.. To save time and money, the king’s agents routinely depopulated villages – where most of the clearance work had already been done – to make room for the King’s cash crop. Clear cutting that forest is a big job that delays the crop and cuts into profits. Historians Louis and Stengers in 1968 stated that population figures at the start of Leopold's control are only "wild guesses", and that attempts by E. D. Morel and others to determine a figure for the loss of population were "but figments of the imagination". Among these were the right of workers to form labour unions and the abolition of the livret d'ouvrier, an employment record book. :123–124, In 1894, King Leopold signed a treaty with Great Britain which conceded a strip of land on the Congo Free State's eastern border in exchange for the Lado Enclave, which provided access to the navigable Nile and extended the Free State's sphere of influence northwards into Sudan. un faux discours de Léopold II (1883) Il circule depuis plusieurs mois sur internet une vidéo mettant en scène et en paroles "le discours ignoble de Léopold II, roi des Belges, aux prêtres chargés d'évangéliser le Congo belge" (1883) : par exemple sur You Tube ici. Rubino was immediately arrested and subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment. Ó Síocháin, Séamas and Michael O’Sullivan, eds: Vanthemsche, Guy (2006) 'The historiography of Belgian colonialism in the Congo" in C Levai ed., Viaene, Vincent. He explained his goal for his reign in an 1888 letter addressed to his brother, Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders: "the country must be strong, prosperous, therefore have colonies of her own, beautiful and calm.". By the late 1890s, with economical rubber production shifting to India and Indonesia, the destroyed villages were simply abandoned, with their few surviving inhabitants left to fend for themselves or make their way to another village deeper in the forest. Leopold ignored these conditions and ran the Congo using the mercenary Force Publique for his personal gain. What happened then was shameful. According to Michel, "To use the word 'genocide' in relation to the Congo is absolutely unacceptable and inappropriate. His first cousins included both Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and her husband Prince Albert, as well as King Fernando II of Portugal. Why Isn’t Belgium’s King Leopold II As Reviled As Hitler Or Stalin? Voici ces discours accablants : Discours de Léopold II, Roi des Belges, en 1883 : , Inspired by works such as Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness (1902), originally published as a three-part series in Blackwood’s Magazine (1899) and based on Conrad's experience as a steamer captain on the Congo 12 years earlier, international criticism of Leopold’s rule increased and mobilized. This bust was defaced with red paint in November 2008 by activist group De Stoete Ostenenoare, This statue was vandalised in October and November 2018 and in July 2019, while activists demanded it be removed, along with all references to Leopold II, such as street names. As a consequence, the rubber quotas were in part paid off in chopped-off hands. Mayor Maxime Prévôt (. Marie Henriette retreated to Spa in 1895, and died there in 1902.. This monument at the intersection of the Avenue de Luxembourg and the Avenue de Longwy features a standing statue and a quote from Leopold II: "I undertook the work of the Congo in the interest of civilisation and for the good of Belgium.  Supporters included American writer Mark Twain, whose stinging political satire entitled King Leopold's Soliloquy portrays the king arguing that bringing Christianity to the country outweighs a little starvation, and uses many of Leopold's own words against him.  Leopold's reign of exactly 44 years remains the longest in Belgian history. Leopold's sister became the Empress Carlota of Mexico. It features a bust of Leopold II and the names of soldiers from, On 10 June 2020, a Leopold II bust was removed from, Bust in front of the Africa Museum created by, The Leopold II bust is part of the statue. Thinking of the future after his death, Leopold did not want the collection of estates, lands and heritage buildings he had privately amassed to be scattered among his daughters, each of whom was married to a foreign prince. Universal male suffrage was introduced, though the effect of this was tempered by plural voting. Bust on Prinses Clementinaplein in Ostend. Leopold II (Dutch: Leopold Lodewijk Filips Maria Victor; French: Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor; German: Leopold Ludwig Philipp Maria Viktor; 9 April 1835 – 17 December 1909) was the second King of the Belgians from 1865 to 1909 and, through his own efforts, the owner and absolute ruler of the Congo Free State from 1885 to 1908. Laws against child labour were passed. His funeral cortege was booed by the crowd in expression of disapproval of his rule of the Congo. Modern estimates range from one million to fifteen million, with a consensus growing around 10 million. :37 Similar methods of forced labour were employed to some degree by Germany, France, and Portugal where natural rubber occurred in their own colonies. The expedition was composed of two columns: the first, under Belgian war hero Baron Dhanis, consisted of a sizable force, numbering around 3,000, and was to strike north through the jungle and attack the rebels at their base at Rejaf. Leopold amassed a huge personal fortune by exploiting the natural resources of the Congo. The Belgians rejoiced that the king was safe. This equestrian statuette is one of several small statues of soldiers sharing a single wooden pedestal inside the, This bronze bust on blue stone was created by. The Belgian government lent him money for this venture. The marriage produced four children: three daughters and one son, also named Leopold. As Hochschild describes in King Leopold's Ghost, many of Leopold's policies, in particular those of colonial monopolies and forced labour, were influenced by Dutch practice in the East Indies. These establishments take a lot of work to maintain, and rubber trees can’t really grow on a commercial scale in an old-growth rain forest. Owing to these gifts and the unofficial nature of their relationship, Caroline became deeply unpopular among the Belgian people and internationally. Eventually, tales of the nightmare unfolding in the Free State reached the outside world. The municipality of Rixensart has refused request for comment on the bust. Leopold pushed strongly to pass a royal referendum, whereby the king would have the power to consult the electorate directly on an issue, and use his veto according to the results of the referendum. The abject misery and utter abandon is positively indescribable. After a couple of years, and an impossible to estimate death toll, they had expelled Tip and his fellow Arab slavers. The second, a much smaller force of 800, was led by Louis-Napoléon Chaltin and took the main road towards Rejaf. 5 0 obj Most of the statues date from the interwar period, the peak of colonial-patriotic propaganda. This made Tip a rival to Leopold II, and the Belgian king’s pretense of ending slavery in Africa made any negotiation awkward. The imperial double-cross left Leopold II in complete control. par _Le Grand Absent le Sam 4 Juin 2011 - 7:14 Fais gaffe : si tu oses douter de cela, c'est que tu n'es qu'une sale raciste, révisionniste, et caetera. Leopold emphasized military defence as the basis of neutrality, and strove to make Belgium less vulnerable militarily. He served in the army until his accession in 1865, by which time he had reached the rank of lieutenant-general. Lauwers Nathan; Georges Lorand (1860–1918): Een transnationale progressieve liberaal; VUB; 2016, As documented in several autograph letters by the two unfortunate lovers, Almanach royal officiel, publié, exécution d'un arrête du roi, Volume 1; Tarlier, 1854, Kalakaua to his sister, 28 July 1881, quoted in Greer, Richard A. The mortality statistics were collected through the efforts of British consul Roger Casement, who found, for example, only 600 survivors of the disease in Lukolela in 1903. This preserved them to beautify Belgium in perpetuity, while still allowing future generations of the Belgian royal family the privilege of their use. The caption reads: A constitutional king. Nsala of Wala contemplates the severed hand and foot of his five-year-old daughter in 1904. Leopold's fragile mother was deeply affected by the death of her father, and her health deteriorated. The deal that led to the handover cost Belgium the considerable sum of 215.5 million Francs. The Liberals governed Belgium from 1857 to 1880, and during its final year in power legislated the Frère-Orban Law of 1879. During the 25 years that the Congo Free State existed, it set a new standard for cruelty that horrified even the other imperial powers of Europe. In 1900, he created the Royal Trust, by means of which he donated most of his property to the Belgian nation. In 1890, George Washington Williams coined the term "crimes against humanity" to describe the practices of Leopold II of Belgium's administration of the Congo Free State. 0:23. Last photo of Leopold II before his death.  Leopold granted them courtesy titles that were honorary, as the parliament would not have supported any official act or decree: Greater coat of arms as King of the Belgians, Greater coat of arms as Sovereign of the Congo Free State. If the man could not be caught, or if he needed both hands to work, Forces Publique men would cut the hands off of his wife or children. By 1908, Leopold II had no choice but to cede his land to the Belgian government. Discours de Léopold II, Roi des Belges, en 1883. These governors — vis a vis the labor of their slave workers — looted Congo’s natural resources with industrial efficiency. No single cause took them all. Whippings and mutilations continued for years in the Congo, with every penny in profit siphoned out until independence in 1971.  The French Revolution of 1848 forced his maternal grand-father Louis Philippe to flee to the United Kingdom. Millions of the Congolese people died: modern estimates range from 1 million to 15 million deaths, with a consensus growing around 10 million. It has been suggested that this section be. Leopold's reign was marked by a number of major political developments. On 15 November 1902, Italian anarchist Gennaro Rubino attempted to assassinate Leopold, who was riding in a royal cortege from a ceremony at Saint-Gudule Cathedral in memory of his recently deceased wife, Marie Henriette. , Adam Hochschild devotes a chapter of his book King Leopold's Ghost to the problem of estimating the death toll. Leopold lavished upon her large sums of money, estates, gifts, and a noble title, Baroness Vaughan. He died without surviving legitimate sons. , Several statues have been erected to honour the legacy of Leopold II in Belgium. His father died on December 10, 1865, and Leopold took the oath of office on December 17, in his thirtieth year. (editor, 1967) ", Last edited on 10 November 2020, at 06:35, George Floyd’s death at the hands of law enforcement, Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History, Napoléon Victor Jérôme Frédéric Bonaparte, Grand Cross of the Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, Grand Cross of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Ernest Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Princess Sophie Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Countess Karoline Ernestine of Erbach-Schönberg, Princess Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily, "Belgium's genocidal colonial legacy haunts the country's future", https://www.vrt.be/vrtnws/nl/2020/06/05/leopold-ii-portret-en-controverse/, "Non, Léopold II n'est pas un génocidaire! Caroline bore two sons, probably fathered by Leopold. Leopold quickly replaced the ambassador with a more sympathetic individual to carry out his plan. :259 The Congo Free State was transformed into a Belgian colony known as the Belgian Congo under parliamentary control. The public buildings were mainly in Brussels, Ostend and Antwerp, and include the Hippodrome Wellington racetrack, the Royal Galleries and Maria Hendrikapark in Ostend; the Royal Museum for Central Africa and its surrounding park in Tervuren; the Cinquantenaire park, triumphal arch and complex, and the Duden Park in Brussels, and the 1895-1905 Antwerpen-Centraal railway station. Congolese culture minister Christophe Muzungu decided to reinstate the statue in 2005. , Leopold became king in 1865. At the Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, the colonial nations of Europe authorized his claim by committing the Congo Free State to improving the lives of the native inhabitants. Lucien Philippe Marie Antoine (9 February 1906 – 1984), duke of Tervuren, Philippe Henri Marie François (16 October 1907 – 21 August 1914), count of Ravenstein. 0:27. After the king's death, it soon emerged that he had left Caroline a large fortune, which the Belgian government and Leopold's three estranged daughters tried to seize as rightfully theirs. , Estimates of the death toll range from one million to fifteen million, since accurate records were not kept. Leopold traveled extensively abroad from 1854 to 1865, visiting India, China, Egypt, and the countries on the Mediterranean coast of Africa. He was interred in the royal vault at the Church of Our Lady of Laeken in Brussels. I was so moved, Your Excellency, by the people's stories that I took the liberty of promising them that in future you will only kill them for crimes they commit. %�쏢 The government introduced some cosmetic reforms right away – it became technically illegal to randomly kill Congolese civilians, for example, and administrators went from a quota-and-commission system to one in which they received pay only when their terms ended, and then only if their work was judged “satisfactory.” The government also changed the colony’s name to the Belgian Congo. From the beginning, Leopold ignored these conditions. She and Leopold married secretly in a religious ceremony five days before his death. Reports of outrageous exploitation and widespread human rights abuses led the British Crown to appoint their consul Roger Casement to investigate conditions there. ", "Belgians Target Some Royal Monuments In Black Lives Matter Protest", "Burned Leopold II statue removed from Antwerp square", "Al meer dan 16.000 handtekeningen voor petitie om standbeelden Leopold II uit Brussel weg te nemen, Tommelein wil beeld in Oostende niet verwijderen", "Het Debat. Hunters used this method, known as a battue, extensively in the Victorian Period, and was scalable such that it could empty a whole ecosystem of its large animals. His extensive travels and interviews in the region resulted in the Casement Report, which detailed the extensive abuses under Leopold's regime. Tip used his position to ramp up his slave trading and ivory hunting, and the generally anti-slavery European public brought pressure on Leopold II to break it off. Tip’s group had a considerable presence on the ground and sent regular shipments of slaves and ivory down to the Zanzibar coast. Domain has 369 Real Estate Properties for Sale in Leopold, VIC, 3224 & surrounding suburbs. Leopold II handpicked governors, each of whom he gave dictatorial powers over their realms.  A widespread war of words ensued. , After numerous unsuccessful schemes to acquire colonies in Africa and Asia, in 1876 Leopold organized a private holding company disguised as an international scientific and philanthropic association, which he called the International African Society, or the International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of the Congo. He took an active interest in the senate, especially in matters concerning the development of Belgium and its trade, and began to urge Belgium's acquisition of colonies. The Catholic Party obtained a parliamentary majority in 1880, and four years later restored state support to Catholic schools. Under the reign of Leopold II, the Congo’s unique wildlife was fair game for sport killing by almost any hunter who could book passage and pay for a hunting license. He expanded the grounds of the Royal Castle of Laeken, and built the Royal Greenhouses, the Japanese Tower and the Chinese Pavilion near the palace. ", "Arlon: pétition et contre-pétition autour de Léopold II", "Brusselse meerderheid vraagt dekolonisering van openbare ruimte", "L'UMons retire un buste de Léopold II suite à une pétition", "Congo: Histoire blanche, voix noires, zones grises", "De schuld in de onschuld van een straatnaam", "Steeds meer protest in België tegen standbeelden Leopold II", "BEKIJK: Buste van Leopold II na 90 jaar weggehaald uit Zuidpark in Gent", "Statue de Léopold II déboulonnée à Auderghem : Ce n'est pas comme ça qu'on procède dans une démocratie", "Hoe Oostendse activisten met een afgehakte hand de puntjes op de i zetten", "Opnieuw beeld Leopold II besmeurd met verf", "Standbeeld Leopold II opnieuw beklad, nu naar aanleiding van dood George Floyd in Verenigde Staten", "Gent haalt beeld Leopold II weg: "Een dergelijk figuur kunnen we niet langer eren, "Stad zet Leopold II terug op zijn sokkel met boodschap: "Halle zwicht niet voor vandalen, "KU Leuven haalt borstbeeld van Leopold II weg", "Universiteit Bergen haalt standbeeld Leopold II weg", http://lampspw.wallonie.be/dgo4/site_ipic/index.php/pdf/fiche/92094-INV-1952-01, Hof- und Staats-Handbuch für das Herzogthum Anhalt, Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Bayern, The Royal Tourist—Kalakaua's Letters Home from Tokio to London, "Agraciamentos Portugueses Aos Príncipes da Casa Saxe-Coburgo-Gota", "พระราชทานเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์ที่ประเทศยุโรป (ต่อแผ่นที่ ๖ หน้า ๘๓)", Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg, King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa, "Towards a History of Mass Violence in the Etat Indépendant du Congo, 1885–1908", Official biography from the Belgian Royal Family website, Mass crimes against humanity in the Congo Free State, The Crime of the Congo, 1909, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Archive.org, "The Historical Origins of the Sanction of Imprisonment for Serious Crime", Newspaper clippings about Leopold II of Belgium, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Leopold_II_of_Belgium&oldid=987956605, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The statue has been vandalised several times, including with red paint by.  MPs agreed to set up a parliamentary commission to examine their country's colonial past, which was likened to the Truth and Reconciliation Committee set up in South Africa after the apartheid regime was abolished. , Writer Arthur Conan Doyle also criticised the "rubber regime" in his 1908 work The Crime of the Congo, written to aid the work of the Congo Reform Association. Marie Henriette, lively and energetic, endeared herself to the people by her character and benevolence, and her beauty gained for her the sobriquet of "The Rose of Brabant". When both of these plans failed, Leopold shifted his aspirations of colonisation to Africa. She died of tuberculosis that same year, when Leopold was 15 years old.. Leopold was born in Brussels on 9 April 1835, the second child of the reigning Belgian monarch, Leopold I, and of his second wife, Louise, the daughter of King Louis Philippe of France. Cartoon depicting Leopold II offering gifts to German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. In 1885, various socialist and social democratic groups drew together and formed the Labour Party. In 1878, under the auspices of the holding company, he hired explorer Henry Stanley to explore and establish a colony in the Congo region. His death was a source of great sorrow for King Leopold. Discours prononcé par Léopold II, roi des Belges, en 1883, devant les missionnaires se rendant en Afrique, sujet d'entrainement au texte argumentatif, épreuve de français au bac. With the field cleared of rivals, King Leopold II reorganized his mercenaries into a ruthless group of occupiers called the Force Publique and set them to enforcing his will across the colony. ... maybe colonisation was domineering and acquiring more power, but at a certain moment, it brought civilisation.  Colonial accounts placed much more stress on Leopold's modernizing changes in the Congo. Wikimedia CommonsNsala of Wala contemplates the severed hand and foot of his five-year-old daughter in 1904. The proposal was rejected, as it would have given the king the power to override the elected government. Under his regime millions of Congolese people died.  The British monarch, Queen Victoria, was Leopold II's first cousin, as Leopold's father and Victoria's mother were siblings. View our listings & use our detailed filters to find your perfect home.  The debate then periodically resurfaced over the following 20 years. She was also an accomplished artist and musician. Hybrid/YouTubeRubber plantation workers in Boma, wearing their neck chains. Men who failed to meet their ivory and gold quota even once would face mutilation, with hands and feet being the most popular sites for amputation.  In 1908, the reports of deaths and abuse and pressure from the Congo Reform Association and other international groups induced the Belgian government to take over the administration of the Congo from Leopold as a new territory, Belgian Congo. , His controversial regime in the Congo Free State has motivated proposals for these statues to be removed. This was replaced by a system in which one son in every family would have to serve in the military.  Failure to meet rubber collection quotas was punishable by death.
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